Israel's political system is characterized by its claim to unite two state principles, namely "Jewish and democratic". Their relationship to one another is the subject of permanent political debate. With regard to the legal organization of the Israeli population, the state's promise to be "Jewish and democratic" appears to be an immanent contradiction, since it demands a particular focus on Jewish citizens and universal legal treatment of all Israelis at the same time. The questions addressed in the dissertation are how the two principles of "Jewish and democratic" are manifested in law and how the particular and universal approaches contained therein relate to each other. On the basis of legal documents on central topics such as immigration, naturalization, education, language and the relationship between state and religion, the codification of groups or individuals in the Israeli legal system is analysed. The aim is to systematically examine the strong differentiation between groups (mainly Jewish Israelis on the one hand and non-Jewish Israelis on the other, which means mainly Arab/Palestinian Israelis) with regard to the maintenance of these group differences. The work is situated in the research field of Israel studies. Will Kymlicka's theory of liberal multiculturalism serves as the theoretical framework. The result of the dissertation is the finding that within the Israeli legal system, with regard to the administration of the population, two independent legal systems exist. Through these, two independent strands of law are established, which form the population into two groups that are legally addressed differently. Jewish citizens appear in Israeli law as a cohesive group with common characteristics and a clear political will, while non-Jewish citizens are legally individualized into loose individuals with no common characteristics or history, or divided into a variety of apolitical religious denominations. The two legal systems run parallel to each other without legally competing with each other. Looking at the overall political system, it is evident that the "Jewish" principle of the state takes precedence over the "democratic" principle of the state. And the universal access to all Israelis can only be procedural, given the strong particularism in favour of the Jewish group.